Internet of Vehicles (IoV) technologies are gaining momentum, they could offer effective solutions to challenges arising in modern transportation.
IoV provides opportunities to increase road safety, reduce fuel consumption as well as pollution, and cut various business-related costs. In addition, each vehicle on the road could potentially serve as an information hub or edge server for people and various IoT devices on the road.
Here we discuss the IoV functionality and how it will further benefit telematics in the nearest future.
Internet of Vehicles: concept
IoV provides vehicles with real-time communications opportunities with drivers, as well as with pedestrians, other vehicles, smart sensors, roadside infrastructures, and innovative fleet management platforms.
Internet of Vehicles is basically a result of increased smart vehicle connectivity opportunities to the Internet of Things (IoT). IoV seems to be a promising paradigm, already shaping the future of vehicular connectivity while boosting automotive markets and pushing forward the 4G/5G/6G related innovations.
IoV includes a large number of vehicles, as well as things and networks that have been equipped with many network function virtualization enabled devices. Utilizing 5G connectivity benefits, IoV expected to enable high speed, low latency time, and intelligent scheduling in a wide range of applications.
To reach such characteristics, the IoT devices could be deployed on the roads and integrated into various intelligent traffic information systems via 5G networks. An example of such NFV-based IoV is shown in a figure above [Yulei Wu et al., 2019].
A seven-layered model architecture for IoV that allows a transparent interconnection of all the network components and dissemination of data into an IoV environment was proposed by [Contreras-Castillo, J. et al, 2017] and is shown on a figure below.
User Vehicle Interface Layer provides direct interaction with the driver through a management interface to coordinate all driver notifications and select the best display element for the current situation or event, therefore reducing the driver’s distractions. Data Acquisition Layer collects data from various sources located on the roads. Data Filtering and Preprocessing Layer analyzes the collected information to avoid the transmission of irrelevant information and reduce network traffic.
The next layer is Communication Layer, that selects the best network to send the information by using several selection parameters such as congestion and QoS level in the different available networks. This layer followed by the Control and Management Layer, responsible for managing different network service providers that are within the IoV environment. In this layer, different policies and functions are applied to better manage the information received.
Processing Layer on its turn processes large amounts of information using various types of cloud computing infrastructures locally and remotely.
The results of the processed information can be used by massive data services providers to further improve the service or to develop new applications. The security layer is a transversal layer that has direct communication with the rest of the layers. It is responsible for all security functions within the considered architecture.
IoV: further development and benefits for Telematics
A summarized view of the evolution of vehicular communication towards IoV, proposed by [Kaiwartya, O. et al, 2016] is shown in the figure below. IoV could potentially bring novel features in every field of automotive industry: from manufacturing all the way to the customer experience.
IoV has a promising potential to form a cohort of service providers that will offer new services such as real-time traffic information, parking spot locations, location-based services, that would be highly valuable both for vehicle owners and telematics-related businesses. IoV provides plenty of benefits including dynamic information services, smart vehicle control, applications aimed at insurance rates reduction, and increased efficiency obtained via reduced traffic.
IoV as technology currently undergoes active development and with a time certain current challenges like IoV networks security, protocols standardization, network privacy, and efficient VNF management will be addressed more efficiently.
- Internet of Vehicles, Proceedings of the IEEE, X. Shen et al, 2020
- Internet of Vehicles: Motivation Layered Architecture, Network Model Challenges and Future AspectsKaiwartya, O. et al, 2016
- Collaborative Internet of Things (C-IoT), F. Behmann, Kwok Wu, 2015
- Internet of Vehicles: An Introduction, Sadiku, M.N.O. et al, 2018
- Internet of Vehicles: Architecture, Protocols, and Security. Contreras-Castillo, J. et al, 2017
- White Paper of Internet of Vehicles, 50th Telecommunications and Information Working Group Meeting, 2014.
- 5G-enabled Internet of Things, Yulei Wu et al, 2019.